Abstracs/ Abdor Rauf Afzali

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Instrumentality of Logic

Muhammad Izadi Tabār

The present article focuses on the place of logic among other sciences.

Since the assessment of scientific distinction and classification play a pivotal role in clarifying the issue in question the paper will, in the first place briefly, discuss them and then begin proving the instrumentality of logic. It also mentions that we can look at logic both as something in itself and as something in relation with other sciences. The second perspective constitutes the objective behind logic and it is based on this outlook that logic has been deemed as instrumental science in relation with other sciences.

Studying the meaning of logical instrumentality, the paper, in the end, explains that logic grantees the accuracy of thought both formally and materially, though it dose not generally discuss about the matter of thought.

Keywords: scientific distinction, instrumentality, logic, formal logic

Structure of Logic

Muhammad Muhammad Alizādeh

Since logical discussions, which echo mental relations, bear certain rational arrangements, we cannot begin them in any way we please.

Logicians have differed in enumerating Aristotle’s logical chapters and elements. Some have considered them as six, others as seven and yet others as eight. Logic has, after Aristotle, undergone great changes for some have added new chapters to previous ones while others omitting or distinguishing some parts as independent. Similarly there is a difference in arranging logical chapters. Some have regarded the priority of some chapters to others as necessary while others have not.

The present article relates different opinions by logicians, on the number of logical chapters and elements, their arrangement and the reason behind it.

Keywords: logical chapters, logical elements, structure of logic, natural logic, constructive logic, two-part logic, nine-part logic.

A comparison between traditional logic and Frege’s logic in propositional analysis

YārAli Kord Firuzjāyi

Since proposition is one of the most important part of logic, different points of view have been, in the history of logic, expressed about its parts. However traditional logic and modern logic beginning with Ferege, are fundamentally different in this area. The traditional logic decomposes a categorical proposition into subject and predicate while Ferege divides it into function and variable, criticizing the traditional elaboration. After relating these two theories, the presenet writing, criticizes Ferege,s theory, showing its unacceptable implications.

Keywords: proposition, subject, predicate, relation, function, variable, concept, thing.

An Introduction to Logic

R. Arnaldez

In this essay, R. Arnaldez studies the position of Logic in the Islamic world and it's relation with other Islamic sciences such as syntax (Nahv), interpretation (Tafsir), Islamic jurisprudence (Fegh), theology (Kalâm), philosophy (Falsafeh) and mysticism (Erfân) with a historical glance.

He also considers the reactions of the early Islamic scientists against translation of logical works and compares the opinions of Muslim logicians with Aristotle's viewpoints.

Logic arrived in the Islamic world through translations, and at the first, although some rejected it totally, in Arnaldez opinion, even those who accepted it, were separated from Aristotelian way by reducing it for instruments of assessment of names and meanings.

Theologian preconceptions and influence of Syriac and Stoic works were other reasons that separated Islamic Logic from Aristotelian logic.

In addition, Arnaldez points to creativities and novelties of commentators such as Al-farabi and Averroes, and emphasizes that Logic by Avicenna's works was stabilized in the rank of preliminary part of philosophy, just as it arrived in Islamic Jurisprudence (Fegh) by Ghazzali's works. Although he acknowledges that before Ghazzali, the theory of reasoning was considered by Muslims in Roots of Islamic Law (Osul Al Fegh)

Keywords: Logic, the history of Logic, nominalism, realism, the philosophy of Logic, necessity, literalism.

A complementary note on logic entry in encyclopedia of Islam

Askari, Soleymāni Amiri

The approach of the article on logic in encyclopedia of Islam, towards logic and its development in Muslim world, suffers from the following shortcomings. It claims that:

- Firstly Muslims did not call this science logic under the influence of Qur,an.

- Secondly the opposition to logic by some Muslims was not rooted in their Arabism and religious beliefs.

- Thirdly it does not touch the role played by Muslim logicians in the development of logic in the world of Islam.

The paper criticizes the above - mentioned points and tries to complete R. Arnaldez,s article by shortly relating the development of logic beginning from translation movement in the world of Islam.

Keywords: logic, encyclopedia of Islam, Arnaldez, Muslim logicians, translation movement.

A new method in writing dictionaries of Islamic intellectual sciences

Ahmad Abutorābi

Before writing the Encyclopedia of Islamic Intellectual Sciences,

the Research Center of the Encyclopedia of Islamic Intellectual Sciences wants to publish dictionaries in the field of logic, philosophy, theology and mysticism,

These dictionaries carry peculiarities that separate them from all other existing dictionaries and some of the content peculiarities will gain them special prominence.

We have logically chosen logic as the first discipline for getting an encyclopedia of its own.

In order to get benefited by the views of scholars of intellectual sciences and experts in encyclopedia compilation we publish two examples of articles "Mantiķ" (logic) and "Tasawwor" (perception) written with specialties in question. The scholars are hoped to help us by their guidance to improve this method.

Keywords: logic perception, intellectual sciences, dictionary.

An introduction to dictionary of logic and a note on it

Askari, Soleymāni Amiri

Expansion of sciences and variety of information has made it necessary to supply scientific facilities to provide knowledge seekers with fast and accurate information. One such facility is to write an encyclopedia or to compile a dictionary. The purpose behind such projects is to show the structure of a science and the position a term holds in regard with that science. They also explicate the relations a term enjoys with other terminologies.

The paper introduces dictionary of logic and presents certain suggestions after considering its defects.

Keywords: dictionary, general, particular, synonym, lexical presentation, systematic presentation, graphic presentation, tree presentation.

A new method for identifying an entry

Muhammad Karimi

One of the basic requirements of writing an encyclopedia is to identify entries. How to select entries and arrange them plays an effective role in composing an encyclopedia. Contrary to other encyclopedic center, the Research Center of the Encyclopedia of Islamic Intellectual Sciences has chosen a new method for identifying entries. It requires a long time but its product is fundamental and lasting. According to this method, entries are first, identified by making use of relevant thesauruses and then they are generally divided into two stages: research and supply. This paper explains the characteristics of each stage.


entry, thesaurus, encyclopedia, encyclopedic relations, hierarchical relationship, equivalence relationship, associative relationship.