Abstracts/ Abdor Rauf Afzali

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Abstracts

The Role of Muslim Logicians in the Development of Logic

This article is the out-come of a round-table discussion about the role of Muslim logicians, particularly Farabi and Avicenna in the development of logic and similarly on Rescher's theory of dividing Islamic logic into Eastern and Western Schools. The discussion was attended by Dr. Lutfullah Nabawi, Hujjat al-Islam Askari Sulaimani and a few professors and researchers from the Research Center of the Encyclopedia of Islamic Intellectual Sciences”.

Keywords: logic, Baghdad school, eastern school, western school, Avicenna, Farabi, Aristotle, Nicholas Rescher.

An Introduction into Philosophy of Islamic Logic

Askari Sulaimani Amiri

Philosophy of logic is a science that studies logic intellectually. As a result, the subject matter of this science is logic itself and its aim is to answer questions related to the whole or part of this science or its historical development.

The present article gives an account of the philosophy of Islamic logic.

Keywords: philosophy of logic, logic, subject matter of logic, methodology of logic, foundations of logic, logical schools

Predications and Their Characteristics

Muhammad Baqir Malekian

The paper seeks to present all famous predicate divisions found in logical works, the reason why they have been named differently and their origins if found in any logical presentations. It also treats with all the definitions some forms of predication hold in some particular cases. However it also deals with some divisions on predicate, which are not related in logical books.  

Keywords: in-derivative predication, derivative predication, primary essential predication, common technical predication natural predication, contractual predication, essential predication accidental predication, absolute predication, batti predication, non-batti predication, reality predication, rarity predication.

Objections on Logic and their answers

Muhammadreza Muhammad Alizade

Albeit, historically speaking, logic is as old as man and his thought, Aristotle was reportedly the first who wrote logical rules and his students and followers completed the task with their expositions and commentaries, which resulted in a collection of books they named Organon. Those who were, however, opposed to Aristotelian logic, began to criticize it

The critics of logic, before or after the advent of Islam and the translation of logical works into Arabic, were opposed to logic because of some beliefs which are as follows:

  • Aristotelian logic, whether in the form of definition or deduction’ is deficient, futile, useless or barely useful.
  • Human beings do not need Aristotelian logic.
  • The axioms of Aristotelian logic are no always true.

This paper deals with doubts on the use of logic, the need for logic and the truth of logical axioms and the answers given by logicians to these doubts

Keywords: doubts on logic, logical axioms, need for logic, use of logic

Judgment in Logic and Philosophy

Mehdi Baba’i

After defining judgment lexically and technically, the article deals with its different interpretations put Forth by logicians. It also focuses on whether a judgment is‘ assertion’ or not. In the end, it discusses the nature of judgment from a philosophical point of view.

Keywords: judgment, assertion, conception, perception

Priori Demonstration and Posteriori Demonstration and Their Epistemic Values

Muhammad Izaditabar

Focusing mainly on Farabi and Bahmanyar's logical works which are different from those of other logicians, the present article on priori and posteriori demonstrations studies topics such as a short history of the two demonstrations, philosophy of their naming, other names attributed to them, criterion for their being priori or posteriori, their divisions and their epistemic values.

It also deals with the way of deduction in posteriori demonstration, the priority of priori demonstration over posteriori demonstration etc. and introduces the best and the most solid kind of priori demonstrations.

Keywords: priori demonstration, posteriori demonstration, absolute priori demonstration, absolute posteriori demonstration, reason

Mulla Sadrā; an Unknown Great Logician

Askari Sulaimani Amiri

Although Sadrā was a great logician who influenced logic considerably, there is hardly any one ready to compare him in logic with Suhrawardi, Khawjah Nasir al-Din Tusi, Avicenna (Ibn Sinā) or Farabi, for, perhaps, Sadrā's reputation as a sage and philosopher has overshadowed other dimensions of his personality.

The present paper is, however, written to introduce esteemed readers to another of the unknown scientific dimensions of this well–known personality, by way of referring to some of his logical ideas and works.

Keywords: Mulla Sadrā, logic, logic of transcendental philosophy, logical works, logical ideas

A Comparison between Ways of Documenting a Text

Mehdi Rahimi

Scholarly books and articles are written on the basis of documentation, argument or a combination of the two. Documenting scholarly and expertly texts is done in different ways and this paper seeks to study critically these ways and show the best way.

Documenting a text can be made by making a direct reference, indirect reference, or documenting on the one hand and making references within or outside the text on the other. According to the author, the best way for documenting an expertly and scholarly text is to provide reference within a text in the following way: author, title, volume and page.

Keywords: documenting a text, documentary method, argument method, creativity method, direct reference, indirect reference, documentation, report, making reference outside the text, intra- textual reference within the text.